Fasting for those 3 days doesn’t have the same effect of fasting for 30 days. The more you fast the greater the effects and rewards. Yes, fasting for those 3 days has an amazing effect that’s close to fasting 30 days, but it’s not the same. Such wordings are used to encourage people to fast them.
Here’s an example. If you read Sura Ikhlaas 3 times it’s as if you complete the entire Qur’an. Obviously if you read the entire Qur’an it has a greater effect and reward. This means this Sura is so powerful and important it’s like it represents the Qur’an.