1- It should not take too long to check. You go to the bathroom, check and change the pad if needed, then do wudhu and go and pray Dhuhr. Then check again and if you don’t see anything pray Asr. This checking should not talk more than several minutes. And even if we assume it does, prayer is our priority and comes before everything else. Sometimes we have to sacrifice.
One recommendation is to go to work at times when the time for Salat is not about to expire. That way you won’t have to be rushing. So let’s say at 1 pm pray dhuhr and then at 3 pm pray asr. And the checking won’t take too long this way.
2- For the medium istehadha, you need to shower once a day. Do that at home. And remember whether it’s medium or a little, you check check right before prayer and do wudhu. You don’t have to constantly keep checking. Yes for major istehadha you need 3 ghusls per day. If it becomes very difficult, you can do tayammum for some of them.