1- The awrah of a male is the two private parts only. However, a male should not show his body to females in a provocative manner. He should be dressed appropriately when he is in their presence.
2- He should wear clean clothes, not clothes that are too tight, he should cover his body to at least the knee, and it’s recommended for a man to cover his head (such as an appropriate har, turban, kufiya, etc..)
3- If it provokes women it’s not permissible.
4- If it provokes women and attracts their attention, no it’s not permissible.
7- By default men can wear shorts. But if they are in a particular setting such that it’s provoking women and drawing negative attention from them, it would not be permissible.
8- No because it does provoke men.