1- There is no doubt that the mind rules that the punishment must be commensurate with the offense committed by the person, so sometimes the offense is simple, so its punishment is simple, it may be a financial fine, or imprisonment for a short period, or a reprimand.
And sometimes the crime is serious, so the punishment is severe, such as the death penalty for betraying the country and revealing its secrets that may lead to severe harm to people, or cutting off the hand of the thief, to be a deterrent to others from stealing.
And no one says that applying the death penalty to the murderer, the traitor, or the rapist of women is a harsh punishment, rather they view it as an application of justice and a protection for society.
There is also no doubt that the one who sentences them to death or cut off the hand of the thief does not judge that out of hatred, but out of love for the good for them, because it is assumed that if a person knows that he will face such a punishment, he will not commit the crime.
And this is what we see in divine punishments. God Almighty says the punishment for polytheism is fire, because polytheism is a great injustice, as Luqman al-Hakim, peace be upon him, said.
God Almighty threatens fire for shirk and for committing major sins, and this is like the law that says if you run a red light, you will face imprisonment for a year and a fine of 10 thousand dollars – for example -.
The mind says: Do not commit this violation, in order not to face this punishment, and does not say: The legislator of this law does not love us, so he imposes this severe punishment.
Therefore, do not associate partners with God and do not commit sins, so that you do not face punishment. On the other hand, why do we neglect the rewards and prizes that God Almighty has prepared for His servants in exchange for some small acts of worship?
He promised them gardens beneath which rivers flow, and what no eye has seen and no ear has heard of everlasting bliss?
Why do we look at the punishment and magnify it, when we deserve it for violating the laws, and we do not look at the prize and the great reward that we do not deserve in reality, because what we do of good deeds does not deserve this great reward, like the one who does a job for which he deserves 100 dollars, but he is given 10 thousand dollars.
2- Man is created from clay, and God Almighty has combined two things in him, the intellect and the instinct. The intellect leads to the divine attributes and makes them manifest, and elevates him to perfection, while instinct drags him to negligence, and makes him lower than the beasts.
The installation of instinct in man is from divine wisdom, as if it were not for instincts, man would not have sought to earn sustenance, mate, reproduce and reconstruct the earth.
However, God Almighty has established laws and laws to govern and discipline these instincts, so that they do not become tyrannical and become a cause of corruption instead of reform.
If instinct overwhelms a person, negative traits such as greed, miserliness, and others appear.
3- I hope this has been covered in 1.
4- With regard to this question, you can direct it to specialized doctors and geneticists, and you will find a satisfactory answer, which is that the cause of deformed children is due to parents in the first place, and to the calamities that befall humanity from wars, contaminated foods, and nuclear radiation… etc. God Almighty has set a universal law, but we have broken these laws, and breaking the laws has its negative effects.
And to bring you closer to the matter, we notice that many countries require a medical examination for the fiancés before marriage, to ensure that they are suitable for each other, and that they do not carry genetic diseases that appear in children. If we suppose that the medical examination proves that the fiancées carry a disease that leads to deformation of the fetus or that it is infected with a disease, and they insist on getting married and have an infected child, then who is responsible here, God, or the parents?