1- To know what’s special about Islam, I recommend you see these 2 lectures:
When it comes to knowing what the Imams said, we have a science called the science of hadith. We examine the source to see if it’s reliable, then we examine each narrator in a chain to see if they were reliable or not.
2- You don’t need to believe the Imams performed particular supernatural things or not. We don’t believe in the Imams because they did those things. We believe in them because the truthful Prophet told us to follow them, and we read their knowledge and confirmed that it’s source is divine. The knowledge Imam Ali brings in Nahjul Balagha, for instance, is unmatched.
3- God created us to worship Him (that’s how we achieve success spiritually). But it doesn’t mean we pray all day long. Prayer is a small part of faith. Islam commands us to make a halal living, seek knowledge, explore the world, raise a good family, help others in society, and so on. All of this is Ibadat. See Sura A’raf verse 32, Allah says who made the beautiful things haram! As a believer you can enjoy this world, but don’t do anything haram and have your hope in the hereafter because the world will end. The way your father explained it to you is not accurate.
4- Who told you all music is haram? Haram music is the inappropriate, entertainment music that distracts us. Not all music is haram. That haram inappropriate music is like a drug that gives us a high. It activates the same part in the brain as a drug does.
5- See this clip:
6- If you believe in a God, and you believe he has a system, and you believe he answers prayers when there is wisdom in it, then yes doing these a’maal like the 40 days can increase your sustenance. If God exists, He won’t be able to do that? Now if someone doesn’t believe in God, sure I won’t use this argument. There is no factual way to prove it to an atheist because he can just say it’s a coincidence. But here’s the point, I don’t believe in God because if I do 40 days of this deed He’ll give me this or that. I believe in him because I intellectually know he exists. I recommend you see this:
7- A woman doesn’t have to dress like a “tent.” She just has to cover her skin (except face and the hands) and not wear provocative clothing. As long as she is doing that then it’s fine. She doesn’t have to cover her face.
8- Who told you there is no purpose to the universe? First, Imam Ali says every square feet in the universe is occupied by an angel worshipping God (you may choose not to believe that, but we do). Second, in another hadith he says: there are nations in the stars just like you have nations on earth. Sure, we don’t have details on those civilizations because 1400 centuries ago people didn’t have the capacity to fathom them, and the Imams would not say something people can’t comprehend and would falsify (it’s not wise). Besides, we are not obligated to know about them. We must know what our role is in life and prepare ourselves for the next.