I wanted to enquire the following:
1) I got engaged last year, and got into mutah with her for a period of 1 year , wanted to ask do i need to follow the islamic dates or english dates while renewing?

2) During my Muta/Nikah, my wife can ask me for Mahr, which can sometimes be something non monetary as well, if I get a mahr condition which is a future scenario( eg, to pursue further studies after nikah) for which we both have mutually agreed to comply, but however due to some scenarios/circumstances, the above mahr condition can not be fulfiled, does it then invalidate the Mutah/nikah?

First, just because you proposed to her does not mean that the Mut’ah contract is valid for her if it is not with her father’s approval. If her father does not agree, then the Mut’ah contract is invalid.
As for your questions, assuming that her father agreed to the Mut’ah contract, the answers are as follows:
1- If the contract was made in the lunar (Hijri) month, then its renewal is after its expiry according to the lunar calendar, then you can return it after that according to the solar (Gregorian) calendar.
2- If you do not pay the dowry, then it remains as debt, and you must pay it whenever you are able to do so with her consent to delay, otherwise you must borrow to pay it, with your ability to borrow.