In al Kafi vol 1, page 83 we have a hadith of the Prophet (s) stating that prophets don’t leave dirhams or wealth in inheritance, but only knowledge.
As we know, it is a hadith used by Abu Bakr against Fatimah Zahra (as). Therefore I would like to know, what did the Prophet (s) really meant by stating that? What about the stick of Musa (as) and other objects belonging to previous prophets that are in possession of the Imams (as) one after the others, is it not material inheritance for example?

This hadith is not talking about materialistic belongings as the Quran is clear that they do leave behind material inheritance. This hadith is talking about the prophets not focusing on wealth but rather focusing on educating others.