Maulana Sheikh Mateen
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Name: Maulana Sheikh Mateen
Age: 35
Location: Virginia, US
Expertize: Aqaed and Salah related Fiqhi queries
Question:Can you provide the dalil (hadeeths) that describe the position of the hands in the salaat
and the original hadeeths that talk about the second caliph changing this and their sources please

Ayatollah:N/A

Answer: While performing salat you will see that a lot of Muslims hold their hands in different positions while in qiyam (standing position). Some will fold their hands across their chest, some by their navel, and some let their hands hang by their sides. You probably asked yourself, “Why do they do these things?” Let us first look at the word qiyam. This word when looked up means: upright, erect. When you stand upright your arms should be straight as well. If your arms were folded then your body would be in qiyam but your arms would not be. To have the whole body erect would be the position of qiyam. According to The Five Schools of Islamic Law by Muhammad Jawad Al-Mughniyyah, all the 4 Sunni schools and the Shia school agree that holding the hands by the side is permissible. None of them states that takkatuf is obligatory. The Shia scholars say that takkatuf will void your salat, because it is a later bidah.

Placing the right hand over the left hand while standing in prayer is what is called Takattuf.

We find that Imam Ali (as) said “The believers should not put one hand on the other during standing erect in prayers like the disbelievers.”

Al-'Allamah ibn al-Mutahhar al-Helli says in Tathkirat al-Fuqahaa: al-Takkatuf invalidates the prayer and it is placing the right over the left during recitation and the scholars of the Shia sect agree on this—al-Sheikh and al-Murtada both said—al-Baqir (as) said: "And do not make Takkatuf (placing right over left), for it is something that the Zoroastrians do."

Also, Muhammad bin Muslim asked one of the Imams about the man who places in prayer his right hand over his left. He (as) replied: "That is (called) al-Takkatuf, do not do it."

Al-'Allamah Muhammad Hassan Najafi who was the head of the Shia sect in his time says in Jawahir al-Kalam:

“It was said about 'Umar that when they brought him the prisoners from the non-Arabs ('Ajam), they did Takkatuf (placing right over left) in front of him, so he asked about it and they told him that they did this as a sign of submission in front of their Kings, so he saw that it was good to do it for Allah in prayer but did not pay attention to the unpleasantness of imitating the Zoroastrians in Shari'ah.”

al-'Allamah Najm-ul-Deen al-Tibsi says in Al-Irsaal wal-Takkatuf bayn al-Sunnah wal-Bid'ah pg.13-14:

“There are many narrations from Ahl ul-Bayt (as) prohibiting al-Takkatuf and describing it as being from Zoroastrianism”

And he also said on pg.18-19:

“It was said that it was innovated by the Caliph 'Umar bin al-Khattab, he took it from the non-Arab prisoners.”

Ayatollah Sayed Sadiq al-Shirazi said in Sharae'e al-Islam by al-Helli, #235:

“It is what is called ‘al-Takattuf’ and al-Takkatuf that the 'Aamah (Sunni’s) practice, following the path of 'Umar bin al-Khattab, and 'Umar had taken it from the Zoroastrians then inserted it into salat, this was one of his innovations and it was never done by the Prophet (sawa) nor his Ah ul Bayt (as).”

Grand Ayatullah al-Khoei says in Kitab al-Salat vol. 4 pages 445-446:
“It is no secret that the act of Takkatuf was never practiced during the time of the great Prophet (sawa), even though it was narrated through several chains that do not come through us (Shia) thus they are all fabricated and false. Then we should not be hesitant to class it as one of the later innovations after his time. As for the time of the first caliph as it is said or most probably the second as we see in the narration, that when they brought the Persian prisoners to 'Umar, and he saw them in that state so he asked for the reason and they answered that this is what they do in front of their kings to glorify them, so he was pleased with it and ordered that it be done in prayer as Allah is worthier of praise.”
Question:Is Fatima a.s the only female daughter of the Holy prophet or there were other female daughters?

Ayatollah:Khamenei

Answer: There is a difference of opinion amongst the scholars
Question:What is more haram, masturbation for men or a man having a friendship with a woman?

Ayatollah:N/A

Answer: One should not look at the size of the sin but whom he is sinning against. Instead of choosing between two haram actions you could have a temporary marriage with a suitable woman.

May Allah ease your situation.
Question:I have recently had an emergency operation on my spine. As I am still in recovery it means I struggle to walk, bend down, sit down and stand up for a few minutes.

My question is, how should I perform my wudhu if I can’t bend down to wipe my feet and how should I pray as I can’t pray normally?


Ayatollah:Sistani

Answer: Can you lift your feet for wudhu?

I pray you recover soon. Below are the rulings by Ayatollah Sayed Sistani in regards to not being able to pray in the normal way.

Ruling 955. If a person becomes unable to stand while performing prayers, he must sit down; and if he is unable to sit down as well, he must lie down. However, he must not say any of the obligatory dhikrs until his body becomes still.

Ruling 956. As long as a person is able to perform prayers in a standing position, he must not sit down. For example, someone whose body shakes when he stands, or is compelled to lean on something or incline his body a little, must perform prayers in a standing position in whatever way he can. However, if he cannot stand at all, he must sit straight and perform prayers in a sitting position.

Ruling 957. As long as one can sit, he must not perform prayers in a lying position, and if he cannot sit straight he must sit in whatever way he can. If he cannot sit at all, he must – as mentioned in the rules relating to qibla – lie on his side in a way that the front part of his body faces qibla. Furthermore, as long as it is possible for him to lie on his right side, he must not – based on obligatory precaution – lie on his left side. And if neither of these are possible, he must lie on his back with the soles of his feet facing qibla.

Ruling 958. With regard to someone who performs prayer in a sitting position, if after reciting Sūrat al‑Ḥamd and the other surah he can stand and perform rukūʿ in a standing position, he must stand up and from a standing position go into rukūʿ; but if he cannot stand and perform rukūʿ in a standing position, he must perform rukūʿ sitting.

Ruling 959. With regard to one who performs prayers lying down, if he can sit during prayers, he must do so as much as he is able to. Similarly, if he can stand, he must do so as much as he is able to. However, as long as his body is not still, he must not say any of the obligatory dhikrs. And if he knows that he can stand for only a short while, he must do so specifically for the standing that is connected to the rukūʿ.

Ruling 960. If someone who performs prayers in a sitting position can stand during prayers, he must perform prayers in a standing position as much as he is able to. However, as long as his body is not still, he must not say any of the obligatory dhikr. And if he knows that he can stand for only a short while, he must do so for the standing that is connected to the rukūʿ.

Ruling 961. If someone who can stand fears that by standing he will become ill or that he will be harmed, he can perform prayers in a sitting position; and if he also fears [illness or harm] from sitting, he can perform prayers in a lying position.
Question:I understand that in Islam we are highly encouraged to be in the company of good righteous Muslims but unfortunately my community is very small and I have a very difficult time finding friends who are practicing righteous Muslims. I honestly find my non-muslims friends to be more righteous and a better influence on me than the Muslims are. What should I do?

Ayatollah:Sistani

Answer:
My personal advice: Make sure to learn and practice your religion in a way that you are firmly rooted in your faith. If you cannot find good muslims to be around but only have non muslims with good akhlaq to hang out with then try to influence them towards Islam through your dealings with them. If they start calling you towards haram or disrespect your religion then you should remove yourself from their company.
Question:Correct me if I am wrong but I heard that Imam Ali AS did not like to talk about his good qualities with others and that we should also avoid doing so.

1. Why did Imam Ali AS not like talking about his own good qualities with others?

2. Why are we to avoid it as well?

Ayatollah:Sistani

Answer: We should avoid talking about our good deeds to others in order that we don’t show off.
Question:When Imam Mahdis AJ name is mentioned, why do we put our hands on our heads?

Also, I understand that Allah SWT does not leave humanity without an Imam to guide us, but how can we be guided by the Imam of our time AJ while he is in occultation and cannot contact us or we cannot contact him?

Ayatollah:Sistani

Answer: Some say its because its a form of pledging allegiance, some say its a form of respect to say he is above our heads, some say its because the Imam will touch the heads of his followers perfecting their intellect. Allah knows best.

As for your second question, please read the following book

https://www.al-islam.org/fazail-ul-mahdi-ali-akbar-talaafi/benefits-imam-mahdi-aj-during-his-ghaibat
Question:I would like to ask when you send books, have you received any dead threats, or problems from prisons. I am planning to send books

Ayatollah:Khamenei

Answer: No I haven’t. People are happy to receive the books.
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